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Category Archives: kidney

Organ Donation…Rising Need

Dr. Jitendra Kumar

Organ donation is a common term in today’s date but very few people are well aware of this medical procedure to step forward and donate organs to save a life. The process of removing an organ from the body of a living or deceased person is called harvesting. The recovered organ from the body of the donor is transplanted to recipient’s body through proper medical procedure.

Why India is lagging in Organ donation

As per global survey, India is lagging far behind in organ donation (0.00005% as compared to 0.003% in western world) and the main reason behind it is lack of awareness and a lot of misconceptions.

In India, nearly 5 lakh people die due to non availability of organ per year as the country is suffering from an acute shortage of organ donor. It is scientifically proven that a person can save 8 lives by donating his/her organs. But a lot of myths prevail in Indian society regarding organ donation and through mass spread of awareness campaigns only, these myths can be replaced by facts to save thousands of lives. Here are a few facts on Organ Donation:

Organ Donor

Almost everyone can be an organ donor irrespective of age, caste, religion and medical history. The process of organ donation is executed with the consent of the donor. In case of living donor, there are some legal procedures to donate organs (especially kidney donation) but in case of deceased donor, after declaration of brain death, the consent of the family members is important.

Organs that can be donated and transplanted


  • Kidney– Among the list of donated organs, kidney takes the top position as it is most commonly donated. Kidney failures are quite common as diseases affecting kidneys affect both the kidneys almost simultaneously and hence a donor with one kidney is not subjected to any additional risk. A patient with kidney failure can add years to his life through kidney transplant. On an average, the lifespan of a transplanted kidney is 10 years.
  • Liver– One liver can save two lives. A liver has two lobes and each can be transplanted to each individual. Even a portion of the liver can be donated as this is the only organ in human body that can grow cells and regenerate itself to its previous form. A living donor can donate liver.
  • Lungs– Both single and double lobe of the lungs can be transplanted. Single lobe lungs are donated by living donor whereas double lobe lungs can be donated by deceased donor in case of brain death and that needs to get transplanted on the recipient’s body within 4 to 6 hours of retrieval from donor’s body.
  • Intestine– A living donor can donate a portion of the intestine. But generally pancreas can be donated in case of brain death.
  • Heart– Heart can be donated in case of brain death only. Once retrieved from a donor’s body, a heart needs to be transplanted within 4 hours as a heart can survive for only 4 hours after removal from donor’s body.
  • Pancreas– A part of the pancreas can be donated and the functionality of pancreas can be retained with that part only.

Besides organ donation, tissues can also be donated and these can be harvested within 24 hours of death. Besides veins, skin, bones, valves and tendons, cornea donation is the most crucial one as survey reports reveal that nearly 2 lakh cornea donations are needed in India per year whereas only 50,000 corneas are donated. Cornea donation can give vision to many.


Even in this 21st century, there is perception in most Indians that organ donation will lead them towards hell after death. But this is a completely wrong notion as organ donation is not a sin but an auspicious activity that will help you to earn blessings of Almighty as well as many people who will get another life through your donated organs, only because of you.

Director of Nephrology & Renal transplant at asian Institute of Medical Sciences, Faridabad

Latest advances in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Dr N P Gupta,

Every year, a whopping 15 lakh prostate cancer cases among men are detected in India of which 85 per cent are stage four cancers, which means doctors do not give them more than three years to live. The irony is that unlike other cancers, if prostate cancer is detected early, then chances of treating it is almost 100 per cent, cancer specialists point out.

Who are at risk

The greatest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. This risk increases significantly after the age of 50 in white men who have no family history of the disease

About two-thirds of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men age 65 and older. The older the patient, especially if they are over 70, the less aggressive the disease usually behaves.

Men whose relatives have had prostate cancer are considered to be at high risk. Having a father or brother with the disease more than doubles your risk for prostate cancer

Besides, high-fat diets, less exposure to the sun, exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, infectious agents or smoking can put you at risk of developing prostate cancer.


Not everyone experiences symptoms of prostate cancer. Many times, signs of prostate cancer are first detected by a doctor during a routine check-up. Some men, however, will experience changes in urinary or sexual function that might indicate the presence of prostate cancer. These symptoms include:

  • A need to urinate frequently, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Difficulty in having an erection
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs

Because these symptoms can also indicate the presence of other diseases or disorders, such as BPH or prostatitis, men will undergo a thorough work-up to determine the underlying cause.

Diagnosis: Per rectal examination of the prostate is done. If it is hard or irregular than cancer is suspected. A blood test PSA is done and if found more than 4 ng/ml, than prostate cancer is suspected. In a such situation, prostatic biopsy is advisable. Previously, trans rectal ultrasound biopsy use to be done which was blind and not specifically targeting the cancer, therefore diagnosis can be missed.

Latest advancement: Advanced MRI/TRUS Fusion biopsy

An accurate prostate tumour diagnosis and treatment depends on the ability to efficiently perform the biopsy on specific areas of the prostate. In this procedure, first multiparametric Dynamic MRI of the prostate is done. According to images, PIRAD scoring is done which indicates specific areas of cancer. These recorded MRI imagesare fused with a live transrectal ultrasound by a doctor who performs a MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy.

By fusing the MRI and live ultrasound images, the doctor can perform more effectively a targeted biopsy of the selected tissue revealed by MRI imaging.

The biopsy results leads to more accurate diagnosis leading to better management.

Survival rate

The good news is that the current survival rate for prostate cancer is more than 97% if diagnosed early when it is limited to the prostate. . A variety of treatment options like Robotic surgery and radiotherapy are available for this malignancy. Cancer of prostate is best treated when it is at an early stage. Even in advanced stage this cancer has best response to the treatment options.


Academic & Research, Medanta Kidney and Urology Institute,

Medanta, Gurgaon


The kidneys are bean shaped organs situated just below the ribcage. They are usually in pairs and are essential in the excretory system of the body. Incase of any dysfunction or failure to perform its function, one may need to opt for a transplant. The transplant surgery, which is heterotopic, is usually performed under general anesthesia and takes about 2-4 hours.

Precautions Before Kidney Transplant

Preparing for a transplant knowing the consequences it could carry is essential. It is only after multiple visits to doctors, meeting with donors and proper tests that one should go ahead with the procedure. The major things to keep in mind before undergoing a kidney transplant would include:
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The kidneys are bean shaped organs situated just below the ribcage. They are usually in pairs and are essential in the excretory system of the body. The functions of the kidneys include getting rid of waste materials from the body, releasing hormones, controlling blood pressure, producing RBCs and Vitamin D, which are necessary for the good health of bones.

Reasons for Kidney Failure

A kidney transplant is opted for in case of a kidney failure. It could be caused by any or multiple of the following reasons:

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