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Category Archives: Bone Health

Arthroscopic Surgery In India

Dr. Raju Vaishya

Arthroscopic surgery of the joints have come a long way in India over the last 25 years. Growing interest in the learning the skills of arthroscopic surgery has attracted many young surgeons in this field. Until, recently there were only countable arthroscopic surgeons in India, but  it is expected that in near future, there would be a tremendous increase in the trained manpower in this field.

Arthrosocpic surgery is a key hole surgery of the joint, which is now being done for variety of problems in almost all the major joints of the body, especially the knee, shoulder, hip, elbow & ankle. With this endoscopic procedure, there is minimal trauma to the tissues during surgery & it offers an excellent & full view of joint from inside. Thus, helping in accurate diagnosis of the problem & most of these problems can now be treated through the key holes using sophisticated & delicate arthroscopic instruments.

Arthroscopy has revolutionized the understanding & treatment of various joint injuries & diseases. Now, numerous new injury & disease pattern have been found & understood as the cause of problem to the patients. Until now, these problems were not recognized & hence not treated adequately. Other supportive investigations like MRI, CT scan etc have also helped in the diagnosis of joint disorders.

In knee & shoulder injuries, arthroscopy has become a gold standard in the diagnosis & treatment. The most common knee injuries, involve the meniscus (cartilage) & the ligaments (ACL/PCL etc). Not only one can remove the torn portion of the damaged meniscus with arthroscopy, but

It is now possible to even repair the damaged portion in selected cases. Cruciate ligament injuries (ACL & PCL) are very disabling & usually occur in young person involved in sports, when the knee is twisted abnormally. These injuries have almost limited or no capability of healing on its own & hence thos involved get repeated episodes of recurrent instability of their knee. This can be totally corrected by doing arthroscopic reconstruction of the ligament. In a recent study, at Indraporastha Apollo Hospitals by Dr Raju Vaishya & his team, on 110 Indian patients with ACL injuries, it was found that 9 out of 10 these patients have had associated generalized joint laxity & this predisposed them for ACL tears.

The damaged articular cartilage  of the joint surface has no capability of healing & hence if damaged & untreated, lead to permanent damage & early onset of arthritis in that joint. Now, it is possible to grow the cartilage in a tissue culture lab in India also & later applied to the damaged area of the joint (Autologus Chondrocyte Transplantation). This leads to re growth of the normal cartilage & thus prevention of arthritis & need for future joint replacement surgery.

The most common problems related to shoulder joint are instability, rotator cuff tears, impingement & frozen shoulder. All these can now be addressed with day care arthroscopic surgery. Young people are more  prone to have instability of the shoulder joint, leading to recurrent dislocations of their joint. Until now, no satisfactory treatment options were available. But arthrscopic stabilization of these shoulders have changed the scenario with outstanding 95% success rates. Elderly people, on the other hand have more rotator cuff tears, leading to persistent pain, weakness & inability to lift their shoulder above their heads. Arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff can bring significant relief in pain & improvement in their function. Resistant cases of frozen shoulder, which do not respond to conventional treatments like physiotherapy etc can be treated effectively by arthroscopic surgery.

Other joints which are gaining recognition for arthroscopic surgery are hip, ankle & elbow joints.

Is renowned Orthopaedic Surgeon. He is President, Arthritis Care Foundation & Senior Consultant Orthopaedic & Joint Replacement Surgeon, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi,He is  President of Indian Cartilage Society, India.

Hip Pain …Treatment Options

Dr. Raju Vaishya

Hip pain can make it hard to walk, go up and down stairs, squat, or sleep on the side that hurts. A clicking or snapping feeling or sound around your hip joint (snapping hip) may bother you or cause you to worry.

Hip problems may develop from overuse, bone changes with age, tumors, infection, changes in the blood supply, or a problem that was present from birth (congenital). Oddly enough, a person who has a hip problem often feels pain in the knee or thigh instead of the hip.

How Hip works

It is the largest ball-and-socket joint in the body. The thighbone (femur) fits tightly into a cup-shaped socket (acetabulum) in the pelvis. The hip joint is tighter and more stable than the shoulder joint but it does not move as freely. The hip joint is held together by muscles in the buttock, groin, and spine; tendons; ligaments; and a joint capsule. Several fluid-filled sacs (bursae) cushion and lubricate the hip joint and let the tendons and muscles glide and move smoothly. The largest nerve in the body (sciatic nerve) passes through the pelvis into the leg.

Causes of Hip Pain

While many causes of hip pain can arise from the joint itself, there are numerous structures surrounding the hip that can also be the source of pain.

Trauma is often the cause of hip pain, but any source of inflammation may cause pain in the hip area. Pain is one of the symptoms of inflammation, along with swelling, warmth, and redness; together these are signals and symptoms that a problem may exist.

Pain may arise from structures that are within the hip joint or from structures surrounding the hip.

The hip joint is a potential space, meaning that there is a minimal amount of fluid inside it to allow the femoral head to glide in the socket of the acetabulum. Any illness or injury that causes inflammation will cause this space to fill with fluid or blood, stretching the hip capsule lining and resulting in pain.

The femoral head and the acetabulum are lined with articular cartilage that allows the bones to move within the joint with less friction. Also, the socket area of the acetabulum is covered with tough cartilage called the labrum. Just like any other joint cartilage, these areas can wear away or tear and become the source of pain.

There are thick bands of tissue that surround the hip joint, forming a capsule. These help maintain the hip joint stability, especially with movement.

Movement at the hip joint is possible because of the muscles that surround the hip and their tendons that attach across the hip joint, allowing the leg to move in different directions. Aside from controlling movement, these muscles act together to maintain joint stability. There are large bursas (fluid-filled sacs) that surround areas of the hip and allow the muscles and tendons to glide more easily over bony prominences. Any of these structures can become inflamed.

Pain can be referred from other structures outside the hip joint, meaning that while the hip hurts, the problem may potentially originate elsewhere. Inflammation of the sciatic nerve as it arises from the spinal cord in the back can cause hip pain, especially if the L1 or L2 nerve roots are involved. Other types of nerve inflammation may manifest as hip pain, including pain arising in the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, which is often inflamed in pregnancy. Pain from an inguinal or femoral hernia may also cause pain that is felt in the hip.

Hip pain is a nonspecific complaint that requires the health-care professional to find the underlying cause from the many potential injuries or illnesses. The approach to the diagnosis of hip pain requires an open mind because the source of trauma or the cause of illness may not be readily apparent.

Symptoms and Signs of  Hip Pain

Hip pain is often difficult to describe, and patients may complain that the hip just hurts. The location, description, intensity of pain, what makes it better, and what makes it worse depend upon what structure is involved and the exact cause of the inflammation and injury.

Pain from the hip joint may be felt anteriorly (in front of the hip) as groin pain, laterally over the greater trochanter, or posteriorly in the buttock. Sometimes the patient may complain of knee pain that has been referred from the hip. This is especially true in children.

Trauma to the hip: With a fall, direct blow, twist, or stretch, the pain is felt almost immediately.

Overuse injury: The onset of pain may be delayed by minutes or hours as inflamed muscles surrounding the hip joint go into spasm or joint surfaces become inflamed, causing fluid accumulation. Overuse injuries may also cause cartilage, labrum, or capsule damage, resulting in inflammation, pain, and limping.

Pain: Most often, pain is felt in the front of the hip, but the joint is three-dimensional. Pain may be also felt along the outside part of the hip or even in the buttock area.

Limp: Limping is the body’s way of compensating for pain by trying to minimize the amount of weight the hip has to support while walking. Limping is never normal. Limping produces abnormal stresses on other joints, including the back, knees, and ankles, and if the limp persists, these areas may also become inflamed and cause further symptoms.

Fracture: With a hip fracture, there is an acute onset of constant pain after the injury that usually is made worse with almost any movement. The muscles that attach to the hip cause the fracture to displace, or move, and the leg may appear shortened and rotated outward. If no displacement occurs, the leg may appear normal but there is pain with any range of motion of the hip joint. Pelvic fractures may have pain similar to a hip fracture, but the leg appears normal.

Sciatica pain: Pain from the sciatic nerve tends to start in the lower back and radiate to the buttocks and to the front or side of the hip. It may be described in different ways because of nerve inflammation. Some typical descriptive terms used for the pain of sciatica include sharp, stabbing, or burning. The pain of sciatica may be made worse with straightening the knee, which stretches the sciatic nerve and may make it difficult to stand from a sitting position, or walk with a full stride. There may be associated numbness and tingling in the leg or foot. Physical examination may be able to map out which nerve root from the spine is involved.

Loss of bowel and bladder function associated with the pain may signal a neurosurgical emergency and the presence of cauda equina syndrome. If not recognized and treated with immediate surgery, there is risk for permanent damage to the spinal cord.

Arthritis: If arthritis narrows the hip joint and impinges the femoral head’s gliding motion within the acetabulum or if there is a tear in cartilage or labrum, the patient may describe a click, catch, or feeling that range of motion is somehow impeded. Usually, there is pain almost immediately that does not get better as activity continues.

Pain from arthritis tends to be worse after a period of inactivity and gets better as the joint “warms up” with use. But as activity increases, the pain will return.

Bone cancer: Cancer that arises primarily in bone or is metastatic, having spread from another site in the body, can cause intense, constant pain. It is often not related to activity and not made better with rest. Its location and radiation (where the pain spreads) may depend upon the location of the cancer within the hip or pelvis and what neighboring structures are involved or irritated.

Treatment for Hip Pain

The treatment of hip pain depends upon the diagnosis and any underlying illness that may be present.

Aside from medications, therapy will be directed to maintain the strength and range of motion of the hip. As with any illness or injury, the goal is to return the patient to their normal level of function. A team approach involving the health-care professional, physical therapist, or chiropractic-care provider may be considered.

Surgery for Hip Pain

Hip fractures commonly require surgery to fix the fracture. The type of surgery depends upon the location of the fracture within the hip joint. The underlying health of the patient needs to be assessed, and the risks of general anesthesia need to be considered. Surgery often occurs soon after the injury, if the patient’s condition allows, to allow quicker return of activity. Patients who are immobilized and lie in bed for prolonged periods of time are at risk for developing blood clots in their legs (deep vein thrombosis) and breakdown of their skin, or bedsores.

Hip replacement

Hip replacement is perhaps the most common joint replacement surgery. It is considered in patients with progressive arthritis that affects the patient’s ability to do daily activities. Hip resurfacing is an alternative to hip replacement. The choice of procedure is a joint decision made by the orthopedic surgeon and patient to be able to return the patient to the level of activity that they would like to achieve.

Total Hip Replacement

The end portion of the thighbone affected by arthritis is replaced with a metal head that can be cemented with special glue to the stem of the thighbone (or) can be uncemented (in younger patients). The socket is replaced with a metallic cup and high density plastic is used as an insert into it. The socket is usually left uncemented (screws are used to connect to the thighbone). The Total Hip Replacement procedure enables restoration of the natural gliding motion of the joint.

Proxima Hip Replacement

The Proxima Hip Replacement is also ideal for young patients. In this minimally-invasive procedure, the part of thighbone at the point where it begins is shaped and replaced by a metal head. This sits in a metal cup that is fitted into the socket.

Bilateral and Revision Hip Replacements are also done at Apollo Hospitals, India. Some hip surgeries can also be performed using minimally-invasive techniques.

Hip arthroscopy has become more widely available to evaluate and treat hip joint damage, including labrum and cartilage tears, loose bodieswithin the joint, and early arthritis. 

Is a surgeon of international repute, is best known for his swift surgical skills in the field of Orthopedic & Joint Replacement. He has been working at Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi as a Professor and Senior consultant. He is the founder president of Arthritis Care Foundation.  Apart from his distinguished clinical work in the field of arthroscopic and joint replace¬ment surgery, he is well known for his academic contributions. He has more than 150 published articles in various International and national peer-reviewed medical journals and has been regularly invited to give lectures, chairing sessions,etc. in Orthopaedic conferences around the world. He has been awarded for the best paper publication on nu¬merous occasions by Delhi Orthopedic Association and Apollo Hospitals. His work was recognized in the Limca book of records in 2012, 2013 & 2015 for do¬ing bilateral Total Knee Replacement in 93 years old gentleman, bilateral Total Knee Replacement in the oldest couple in a single sitting, ACL reconstruction on oldest man.

Risk Of Osteoporosis In Young Female

  Dr Abhijit Kale

While we are all aware that Osteoporosis is most common in older people, there has been a considerable rise in the number of younger people being affected by it, including premenopausal women in their 20s, 30s and 40s. The term “premenopausal” refers to women who are still having regular menstrual periods and have not yet reached menopause. Even though it sounds highly unlikely, there have been cases with young women having low bone density, thereby increasing their chances of getting Osteoporosis later in life.

Why risk of Osteoporosis

Younger women who tend to restrict what they eat in order to lose weight are at a higher risk of Osteoporosis and fractures. This also includes young mothers, since the baby growing in its mother’s womb needs plenty of Calcium for bone health and development, especially in the first three months. In some cases, women develop Osteoporosis during pregnancy or breastfeeding, although this is rare. Osteoporosis is bone loss that is serious enough to result in fragile bones, increasing the risk of fracture by multifold. Although in many of these cases, mothers who’ve lost bone mass recover the same after they stop breastfeeding. It is however ambiguous whether young mothers can recover lost bone and go on to optimize their bone mass. Diagnosing osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not straightforward and can be quite complicated.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Following are a few symptoms to keep in mind.

  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected

Tips to keep bone healthy

Following are a few tips to keep the bones healthy during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and beyond:

Calcium: The body’s demand for Calcium during pregnancy increases immensely. The National Academy of Sciences recommends that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, should consume 1,000mg (milligrams) of Calcium each day. For young mothers, the recommended intake is even higher: 1,300mg of Calcium a day. Food items like low-fat dairy products – milk, yogurt, cheese and ice cream, dark green, leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, collard greens and bok choy, canned sardines and salmon with bones, tofu, almonds, and corn tortillas, foods fortified with calcium, such as orange juice, cereals, and breads are good sources of Calcium and should be consumed often.

Exercise: Exercising during pregnancy is recommended by almost all doctors, it however should be done under expert guidance. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, being active during pregnancy can:

  • help reduce backaches, constipation, bloating, and swelling
  • help prevent or treat gestational diabetes (a type of diabetes that starts during pregnancy)
  • increase energy
  • improve mood
  • improve posture
  • promote muscle tone, strength, and endurance
  • help you sleep better
  • help you get back in shape after your baby is born

Healthy Lifestyle: Smoking is stated to be bad for your health as well as your baby; it is also proven to be bad for heart, lungs and the bones. Alcohol also is bad for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their babies, and excess alcohol is bad for bones.

Senior Orthopaedic Surgeon at, S.L Raheja Hospital

Osteoarthritis : Prevention And Treatment

Dr. Santosh Kumar

What is Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of joint disease, affecting more than 20 million individuals in the United States alone. The numbers are high in India too. It is the leading cause of chronic disability in those older than 70 years. It can be thought of as a degenerative disorder arising from the biochemical breakdown of articular (hyaline) cartilage in the synovial joints. However, the current view holds that osteoarthritis involves not only the articular cartilage but the entire joint organ, including the subchondral bone.

How to manage Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis  is a condition which progresses slowly over a period of many years and cannot be cured. Treatment is directed at decreasing the symptoms of the condition, and slowing the progress of the condition.

What are the functional treatment goals

–        Limit pain

–        Increase range of motion

–        Increase muscle strength

What are Treatment Plans of Osteoarthritis

Treatment plans can involve:

  1. Exercise.
  2. Weight control.
  3. Rest and joint care.
  4. Nondrug pain relief techniques to control pain.
  5. Medicines.
  6. Complementary and alternative therapies.
  7. Surgery.

How to prevent osteoarthritis

Maintain Your Ideal Body Weight

It has been estimated that the force of 3 to 6 times a person’s body weight is exerted across the knee while walking. In other words, being 10 pounds overweight increases the force on the knee by 30 to 60 pounds with each step taken while walking. The force across the hip is, at most, 3 times body weight. Losing weight reduces stress on your joints.

Exercise Regularly and Participate in Regular Physical Activity

For optimal joint health, it’s recommended that people perform 30 minutes of moderately strenuous exercise at least 5 days a week. It’s an established fact that regular exercise has health benefits. Lower levels of exercise can also be beneficial, according to study results. It’s better to get some exercise as opposed to no exercise.

Protect Your Joints

There are several joint protection principles, which if followed, will help to conserve energy and preserve joint function. The advice is quite simple, but you must be mindful of proper movements and recognize body signals (e.g., pain). Good posture and proper body mechanics are important because protecting your joints is a factor in osteoarthritis prevention.

Avoid Repetitive Stress on the Joints

Signs of repetitive stress include too many uninterrupted repetitions of an activity or motion, unnatural or awkward motions, overexertion, incorrect posture, and muscle fatigue. These symptoms usually are associated with your occupation. Try to find solutions at your workplace and avoid prolonged periods of repetitive stress.

Listen to Your Pain

This recommendation seems so obvious, yet people don’t always do it. Learning to view pain as a signal that you are overdoing it and that it’s time to rest requires conscious effort. Balancing rest and activity is optimal for healthy joints. It’s part of self-management to learn not to overuse your joints and to learn not to push past your limits. Consider that the pain is like a stop sign.

Avoid Injury to Joints

Previous joint injury is recognized as a common cause of osteoarthritis. In joints burdened by improper alignment due to injury, articular cartilage wears away and osteoarthritis can begin to develop. Avoid injury if at all possible – and if you do injure a joint, seek treatment immediately.

Founder of Poorva International Orthopaedic Foundation and Head of Department of Computer Assisted Joint Replacement Surgery, Belle Vue Clinic, Kolkata

All About Back Ache

Back pain can affect people of any age, it is significantly more common among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Experts say that back pain is associated with the way our bones, muscles and ligaments in our backs work together.

Back pain is pain anywhere in the back that usually originates from the muscles, joints, nerves, bones or other areas in the spine.  Back pain can present in the back and legs and can be associated with other factors like depression, stress/anxiety.

How is Back Pain Commonly Diagnosed?


Powerful invisible rays that make it possible to see inside things such as the human body, particularly the bones.

CT Scan

Computer-processed X-rays to produce cross sectional images or ‘slices’ of the body used to visualize bones and soft tissue.


An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to show internal structures of the body including tissues and nerves.


A radiographic dye injected into the spinal canal to help show if the vertebrae are pinching the spinal cord.

Bone Scan

A radioactive tracer is injected into the patient. The patient is then scanned to look for certain abnormalities in bone.

What are Non Surgical treatment options for Back Pain

Most people who have back pain can visit their family practitioner or internal medicine physician, who’d advise conservative care for the patient. Conservative care is treatment designed to avoid medical or operative treatments. Examples of conservative treatments for back pain are injections, exercise and physiotherapy. If conservative care does not work, the patient should be reffered to a spine specialist.


Exercise can help by providing you with a healthy means of relieving some of the pain, frustration and sense of helplessness associated with low back pain.


An epidural spinal injection involves delivering anti-inflammatory medication directly into the area around the irritated spinal nerves that are causing the pain.

Epidural Steroid Injections

At a physiotherapy session, a physiotherapist educates patients about basic anatomy and physiology and instructs patients in strength and conditioning exercises.

What are Surgical treatment options for Back Pain


In this procedure, the surgeon will remove the offending bony fragments or disc material causing your symptoms.

Spinal Fusion

The surgeon will decompress your spine and unite two bony segments. He may use metal rods and screws to stabilize the spine until the fusion can occur.

Minimal Access Spinal Technologies (MAST)

Compared to standard spine procedures, MAST surgeries are done through very small incision thereby reducing the amount of muscle damage, blood loss and hospital stay.

Balloon Kyphoplasty

This is a minimally invasive spinal procedure used to restore vertebral height and relieve pain caused by osteoperatic spinal fractures. A small balloon is inflated in the fractured vertebral body to create a void. Once the void is created, bone cement is injected into the void.

Disc Replacement (Arthroplasty)

The surgeon will replace a diseased or degenerated disc with an artificial one to maintain the normal mobility of the spine and lessen pain.

by Dr. Rahul Gupta is the man behind the department of Brain and spine surgeon at Fortis Hospital, Noida. He was trained at Nagoya Japan, which has made him an expert in Endovascular procedures. He worked in many government hospitals including PGIMS, Rohtak, PGIMER Chandigarh & Govind Ballabh Pant institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, New Delhi. Dr. Rahul Gupta has performed surgeries on hundreds of patients with head and spine injury. He has treated numerous complex spine ailments like metastatic tumors, osteoporotic fractures (vertebroplasty), degenerative diseases and listhesis.

Are your bones getting weak?

Bones tend to get weak over a period of time and deteriorate as we grow old. The thinning of bones is called osteopenia and it precedes osteoporosis However, there are a multitude of factors that cause the bones to go weak. While the symptoms are not quite stark, if paid attention to, they can be spotted and treated before a blow of osteoporosis hits. In addition to these, it is also important to take note of other factors that impact bone health, such as, diet and lifestyle choices and tweak them just in time to protect your bones from further damage.

Below are the common symptoms that signal towards weakening of bones.

Progressive loss of height:

If you observe loss in your height with or without a stooped back, it could be a signal of weakened vertebral bones. This may lead to hunching of back as well. While loss of height occurs naturally to some extent, it can happen more gradually in patients affected with osteoporosis and may be accompanied by debilitating pain. A loss of more than 0.5 to an inch is usually a red flag. Also, weak bones may also lead to vertebral fractures, which may occur gradually and can lead to other fractures if not diagnosed well and treated.

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10 Factors That Affect Bone Health

Bones are the framework that support our body and protects our organs. It is also a storehouse of minerals, primarily calcium and it is critical to protect them from going brittle and weak. Read on to find out the factors that influence bone health, and be better informed


Diet plays an important role in determining the bone health. A diet low in calcium can lead to reduced bone density, early bone degeneration, making them vulnerable to fractures and damage. Also, lack of Vitamins D, C and K can degrade bone health. Vitamin D, in particular, helps in calcium absorption in the body thus making them stronger.


Bones get stronger when they are put to use. People who are physically active are at a lesser risk of osteoporosis than those who are inactive. Hence, it is important to engage in exercises and stay active. Weight bearing exercises, for example, have been found to improve bone density and can be incorporated in your workout routine.

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5 Ways To Keep Bone Healthy

Bones tend to degenerate as we grow older, especially in women, thus making it vital to keep them healthy. Just like a building requires a strong framework of steel and concrete to hold it all together, it is essential that our bones are kept strong as they provide structure, protect organs and enable mobility in our body. Below mentioned are some ways to keep our bones healthy – in both children as well as adults.

Watch your diet

Bones need nutrients such as calcium and vitamins D, C and K for their upkeep. Foods such as low-fat dairy are rich sources of calcium and also contain some quantities of Vitamin D. For those who are lactose intolerant, certain non-dairy sources of calcium include fish like salmon, mackerel, tuna, sardines and also tofu and white beans. Fruits and vegetables are also full of these vitamins and minerals, such as kale, broccoli, spinach, cabbage. Sources of Vitamin C are red and green bell peppers, oranges, pineapples, Indian gooseberries and strawberries. If your diet is severely lacking in these nutrients, you may also have to take supplements.

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What Are Common Orthopedic Disorders

Considering the number of bones and joints in the body, there can be several orthopedic disorders one may face. There are some disorders, which are commonly observed among people. They include:

  • Arthritis: It is a rheumatic disease that causes pain, in the connective tissues. Swelling can be observed and it causes restriction in movement and tends to be chronic.
  • Osteoarthritis: Middle-aged adults and the elderly usually experience this. It is caused due to the wear and tear of the cartilage over the years. One usually experiences this in the knees, hips or the spine. It is one of the most common and painful disorders observed among people.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Inflammation of the joints such that it hampers and limits its functioning is called Rheumatoid Arthritis. Once a person faces this, they are unable to recover from it for life. This mainly occurs when the body’s immune system backfires and attacks its own healthy tissues and cells. If not looked after carefully, the lungs can get affected as well.

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When Should One Go For A Joint Replacement Surfery

A joint is where two bones in the body meet. These are further connected by cartilage, which allow free movement. Over time, the joints are susceptible to harm through injuries or diseases such as arthritis and can cause immense pain, stiffness or discomfort. If not treated on time, damaged joints can cause irregularities in blood flow, hampered growth and reduced chances of self-repair.

What is a joint replacement surgery?

To treat the dysfunctions that the joints face, an orthopedic recommends some physiotherapy or medicines. If all of these fail to work and pain persists, making it difficult for the person to move around, a joint replacement surgery is recommended by the orthopedic.

In this surgery, the poorly functioning joint is replaced with a man-made joint. The procedure usually takes a couple of hours unless there are other factors affecting it.


When should you consider a joint replacement surgery?

It is important to know when to start thinking about surgery because the human body is unable to repair itself after a certain age. Be it a knee replacement or a hip replacement, it essential to go to the orthopedic and discuss best solutions.

The following are factors one could consider:

  • Prolonged use of pain relievers and medicines that are proving to be ineffective
  • Increase in pain over time.
  • Inability to perform basic daily activities

Symptoms of Orthopedic Disorders

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